The U.S. Commerce department advanced a reason for the citizenship question in the 2020 census. Department head, Wilbur Ross tried to claim the question was included to help enforce the Voting RightsAct. But, the lower court, in an opinion which was affirmed on appeal by the U.S. Supreme Court, found the reason to be “contrived.”

Many times, an employee comes to see me and asks me how strong his/her case is.  Often, i do not know.  It is hard to gauge the strength of a case until we know the reasons used by an employer for a questionable adverse personnel action.  Indeed, sometimes those reasons change over time.